Equality Requires an Intersectional Approach: Equal Pay Day 2017

Sixty-seven percent. According to a new and soon to be released report by the Los Angeles Black Worker Center, the median wage black women earn is a mere 67 percent of what white men earn and only 81 percent of what white women earn. This April 4th, which marks Equal Pay Day in the United States, UUSC stands with women, in particular women of color, in calling for policies that honor equal pay for equal work. By coming together to work at the intersection of gender, race, and worker rights, we can continue to make progress to end the wage gap, and there’s no better time to get started than today.
graphic on Black and Hispanic women's incomeEqual Pay Day marks the day each year when women’s earnings catch up to what their male counterparts earned the previous year. According to the National Partnership for Women and Families, “women in the United States are paid 80 cents for every dollar paid to men, amounting to an annual gender wage gap of $10,470.” The Economic Policy Institute’s (EPI) data on the gender wage gap breaks the data down further: the median hourly wage for white men in 2016 was $21.29 and for white women was $17.25, while black women earned a median of $13.90, and Hispanic women earned a median of $12.27.

What these numbers show, is not only is there a gendered wage gap but, as the Joint Economic Committee of the U.S. Congress (JEC) and multiple others have pointed out: the intersection of race and gender deepens existing inequality that women in the United States face. This is not an accident or an oversight, it is a symptom of structural issues regarding how women are treated and compensated in the workplace.

How the Gender Wage Gap Plays Out

Multiple causes underlie the wage gap, many of which have been explored by economists, activists, and academics. One reason includes challenges that women face because of where they work. The National Women’s Law Center explains, “Women are underrepresented in higher-paying jobs that are often dominated by men, and overrepresented in low-paying jobs—women are two-thirds of workers in occupations that typically pay $10.50 or less per hour…like home health aide, child care worker, and maid and housekeeping cleaner.” JEC also notes the dynamic that race plays, “Hispanic and African-American women… are more likely than white women to hold jobs that offer fewer hours and are more likely to work part-time involuntarily” and they are also “less likely to have access to benefits such as paid sick leave, paid family leave and flexible work schedules.”

Workplace policies and low federal wages perpetuate the pay gap. As UUSC’s former partner Restaurant Opportunities Center United found,
66 percent
of women they interviewed in the restaurant industry reported being subjected to sexual teasing, jokes, remarks, or questions from customers.” Overall, 63 percent of women ignored the harassment from guests, in part as a result of the power dynamic between servers and customers, given the restaurant industry’s pervasive use of a tipped minimum wage. Higher wages could thus go a long way towards increasing
pay as well as reducing harassment women face in the restaurant industry.

Relatedly, women also face the “motherhood penalty.” Research has “consistently shown that women with children are paid less than womenwomen earn less than men at every education level graphicwithout children and men with or without children.” A recent Forbes article describes how the penalty goes even further than wage inequity, “new moms are often perceived to have lower competence and commitment, and they face higher professional expectations and a lower chance of hiring and promotion.”

Many efforts have also been made to try and account for how other factors affect wages, such as the area of industry or level of education. However, controlling for these does not explain away the wage gap, and in some cases, the findings are counterintuitive. EPI found that when education is taken into account, the wage gap actually increases as women earn advanced degrees. 

Looking Forward

If we want to eliminate the wage gap in the future and achieve equal pay for equal work, there are clear policy options that can be advanced, such as enacting fair pay protections and raising the minimum wage. Legislation like the Fair Pay Act and Paycheck Fairness Act would address wage disparities and make it easier to for parties to demonstrate that discrimination has occurred. The Center for American Progress reports that women comprised “approximately two-thirds of minimum-wage workers in 2012,” despite the fact that “nearly two-thirds of mothers are breadwinners or co-breadwinners for their families.” That’s an annual salary of less than $16,000. Increasing the federal minimum wage from $7.25 to $10.10 an hour would boost wages for about 15 million women.

Finally, paid family leave and access to child care have both been making headlines in recent months, due in part to the discussion of these issues by the Trump administration. However, the policies being discussed are woefully inadequate and we must work toward a national paid family and medical leave standard for women and men, including adoptive parents, same-sex couples, and non-birthing parents.” Additionally, the Tax Policy Center found that under Trump’s child care plan “more than 70 percent of the total tax benefits would go to families with income above $100,000, and more than 25 percent to families with income above $200,000.” Policies like these will do little for the average worker in the United States.

Programs that help people pursue claims of wage discrimination or ensure that they can take leave after welcoming a new child into their family are critical, particularly to women working in minimum wage jobs or jobs with irregular hours. Further, programs that address things at the structural level, like increasing the Federal minimum wage, also work to remove the bias of interpersonal decisions.

Take Action

While the current political context makes closing the wage gap feel like a long shot, there is hope. Across the country, intersectional organizing is taking place, as workers and their allies are coming together to advocate and move movements forward that work for racial justice, gender justice, and worker rights. Any solutions that strive to close the wage gap must look beyond a sole focus on gender justice, and should include a push for racial justice.

On May Day (May 1), UUSC’s partner Food Chain Workers Alliance is helping to organize a general strike demanding respect for worker rights, and gender and racial justice, and to call for a world where the most marginalized working families live with dignity, safety, and power. Another UUSC partner, Rural Community Workers Alliance is also participating. We hope you will join them to support women and working families.

Rights Reading

Our weekly roundup of what we’re reading includes a few select articles from the front lines of human rights that we don’t want you to miss. This week we are featuring the amazing work our partners are doing on climate justice, protecting refugees, and improving working conditions in the food industry!

Fear stalks migrants huddled along Hungary’s border, Karen McVeigh, The Guardian, March 18, 2017

photo of refugees behind a fence

Asylum-seekers, many who are Syrian refugees and children fleeing extreme violence and war, face additional hurdles in Hungary, which include a 108-mile electric fence and the construction of detention camps along the border. The president of Hungary, János Áder, approved the construction of these detention camps and is implementing a new policy that allows officers to deport any asylum-seekers back to Serbia, where many have already been stuck since last year.

Anti-refugee sentiment in Hungary is on the rise due to politicians like Áder spreading hateful rhetoric and fear, which has recently erupted into violence. There are allegations and investigations about “widespread and systematic violence by police after reporting it had treated 106 migrants, including 22 minors, for injuries caused by beatings, dog bites, and pepper spraying over the last year.”

Hungarian Helsinki Committee (HHC), a UUSC partner, has also documented similar reports of violence. A lawyer spoke to those living in an open camp and reported that people are afraid of and preparing for these new and inhumane policies, and HHC is calling for an investigation into these incidences.

Read more about our work with HHC and the Syrian refugee crisis here.

Catherine Flowers brings civil rights to the fight for environmental justice, Grist, March 2017

“Catherine is a shining example of the power individuals have to make a measurable difference by educating, advocating, and acting on environmental issues.” – Al Gore

Grist, a reader-supported publication focused on climate, sustainability, and social justice, recently announced their top 50 “Fixers,” – innovators who are making headway on climate-related issues. Catherine Flowers, director and founder of Alabama Center for Rural Enterprise Community Development Corporation (ACRE), a UUSC partner, was chosen as a Fixer by Al Gore. She mentions that her work was inspired by her parents, who fought for civil rights. “Even today, people share stories about my parents’ acts of kindness or help, and I feel it’s my duty to carry on their work.”

Flowers is continuing their legacy by advocating for poor and minority residents and working on water and sanitation issues in Lowndes County, Alabama. She is known as “the Erin Brokovich of Sewage.”

Click here to read more about UUSC’s work with ACRE!

Big Strike Brewing Against Trump: Coalition of More Than 300,000 Food Workers to Join May Day Showdown, Sarah Lazare, AlterNet, March 22, 2017

Over 300,000 food workers – farmers, cooks, servers, manufacturers, and more – are joining a nationwide strike on May 1, 2017, which is International Worker’s Day. This strike was issued by Food Chain Workers Alliance (FCWA), a UUSC partner, and Service Employees International Union United Service Workers West (SEIU USWW). Other organizations, unions, and movements are also participating, including Movimiento Cosecha, National Domestic Workers Alliance, and Black Livers Matter Movement.

Jose Oliva, Co-Director of FCWA understands that these types of strikes are risky, especially for food workers who are already vulnerable and underpaid. Oliva says, “The reality is that if folks don’t take the risk, we know what the consequences will be…The only thing we can do is to demonstrate our power through the economic reality we live in.” There will undoubtedly be some retaliation and FCWA and others are starting a strike fund and organizing legal support in preparation.

Learn more about our longstanding work with FCWA and worker’s rights here.

Rights Reading

Our weekly roundup of what we’re reading includes a few select articles from the front lines of human rights that we don’t want you to miss. This week’s catch up on the recent rulings on Trump’s travel bans, human rights violations in Burma (Myanmar), and immigration in the United States.

Two Federal Judges Rule Against Trump’s Latest Travel Ban, Alexander Burns, The New York Times, March 15, 2017

 “This is a great day for democracy, religious and human rights. I am very pleased that the processing of my mother-in-law’s paperwork will not stop now but more importantly that this Muslim ban will not separate families and loved ones just because they happen to be from the six countries.” -Mr. Elshikh

Two federal judges, from Hawaii and Maryland, blocked the Trump Administration’s revised travel ban earlier this week. This is the second setback since Trump issued the new executive order banning travel from certain Muslim-majority countries. The first block was from a federal court in Seattle. The federal judges both argued that the travel ban was discriminatory and based on religion, making it unconstitutional. In addition, the lawsuits mention that the executive order harms the operations of various organizations, schools, and hospitals overseas.

Learn more about the effects these executive orders are having on immigrant families in our blog, DHS Memos Threaten Immigrants’ Rights, Families, and Safety.

Myanmar must ‘allow Rohingya to leave camps’, Al Jazeera, March 16, 2017

Former U.N. Secretary, General Kofi Annan, was appointed to lead a commission by Burma’s (Myanmar) current de facto leader, Aung San Suu Kyi to investigate tensions between Buddhists and Muslims in the country. The commission released a report stating that Burma must close internally displaced persons (IDP) camps that have been housing and trapping thousands of Rohingya, Burma’s Muslim minority, for the past five years. The Rohingya are not recognized citizens and are denied basic rights, including healthcare, education, and often, humanitarian aid. The report also recommends that the U.N. to run an independent investigation into the ongoing violence and persecution of that has been taking place over decades.

Today, UUSC President and CEO Tom Andrews, along with other human rights leaders, gave testimony on the humanitarian situation in Burma. Click here to watch the hearing and join our call for a Commission of Inquiry at uusc.org/truthforrohingya.

Donald Trump’s Crackdown On Undocumented Immigrants Is Silencing Exploited Workers, Dave Jamieson, Huffington Post, March 8, 2017

The Trump administration’s crackdown on undocumented immigrants may have opposite consequences than intended. Christopher Williams, a lawyer who works closely with undocumented immigrants states, “I honestly think it’s creating an incentive to hire more undocumented workers, because now they’re even more vulnerable to being exploited.”

In light of the recent raids, some workers are even denying back pay, afraid of providing their home addresses for fear of deportation. The increase in raids and deportations are creating unsafe working environments to an already vulnerable population.

 

Rights Reading

Our weekly roundup of what we’re reading: a few select articles from the front lines of human rights that we don’t want you to miss.

The Resistance Prevented Puzder From Becoming Labor Secretary, The Nation, John Nicols, February 15, 2017

Last Wednesday, Andrew Puzder, Trump’s nominee for Secretary of Labor, withdrew his nomination due to mounting public pressure, opposition, criticism, and most of all, resistance. Puzder, the CEO of CKE Restaurants, a parent company to many fast-food chains, has a bad reputation when it comes to worker’s rights. He has never advocated for increasing the minimum wage despite increasing overtime hours, has a history of sexist behavior, and allegations of 30 years of domestic abuse from his ex-wife. Trump’s nomination of Puzder was a disappointing blow to many workers across the country, especially after a campaign full of promises to increase wages. He is, as Elizabeth Warren stated, “the opposite of what we need in a labor secretary.”

Puzder’s reputation, opposition from republicans, but mainly resistance movements, were the perfect combination to put pressure on Puzder to step down. Labor activists and worker’s rights groups rallied and continued to gain momentum and build support for the worker’s right movement.

If you’re passionate about worker’s rights, join our partner, the Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW), on their Return to Human Rights Tour. The march begins March 16 in Gainesville, Florida and will go through 12 cities, ending in Columbus, Ohio at the headquarters of Wendy’s on March 29.

This is What a Day Without Immigrants Looks Like, Colorlines, Kenrya Rankin, February 16, 2017

Photo of immigrants and allies at a protestIn response to the administration’s executive orders, “Muslim bans” and increasing ICE raids, immigrants and allies organized “A Day Without Immigrants” as an act of resistance and solidarity. Restaurants, businesses, and immigrant workers across the country stayed home from work and some even kept their children home from school. The main goal for this day was to show Americans the many ways in which immigrants contribute to society. Convenience stories to high end restaurants across the country closed their doors to show solidarity with their workers and the immigrant community.

Check out the rest of the article to see some amazing photos that captured this day.

Federal immigration raids net many without criminal records, sowing fear, The Washington Post, February 16, 2017

Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officers are disregarding long-held rules and standards on who to arrest and where. Immigrants have been victims of racial profiling and arrested outside churches where they are seeking sanctuary; leaving domestic violence proceedings; outside of supermarkets, and arrested without having a criminal record.

Last week, nearly 700 immigrants were rounded up in a series of ICE raids that took place all over the country, inciting a new degree of fear in immigrant communities. Families are refusing to leave their homes and some have stopped sending their children to school for fear of being picked up. Despite ICE’s claims that they are only arresting those with dangerous criminal records, close to 200 of those that were arrested last week had no criminal record whatsoever.

Read more about the Muslim ban, ICE raids, and other events in our blog Rights, Rulings, and Raids: Unpacking recent events.

Two friends, one mission: Access to Clean Technology in Gorkha

Originally posted on Empower Generation’s blog on February 1, 2017. Follow them at @EmpowerGrid to stay up to date on all their amazing work!

Two women smiling

“It still gives me shivers when I think of the earthquake we had on April 25, 2015,” says solar co-CEO Gita Pariyar. “Nepal faced a huge devastation, people lost their lives and those who survived were left with no shelter and darkness at night. We faced not only physical damages but were also shaken psychologically.”

Gorkha District, the epicenter of the earthquake, was hardest hit. It is one of the remotest districts in Nepal, and it is difficult for people there to access healthcare, education, and electricity. This is why Gorkha is one of the most neglected districts in terms of development and why people there face many hardships.

Empower Generation, in partnership with the Unitarian Universalist Service Committee (UUSC) wanted to provide support to the district and Dalit women in the community. Dalits are the “untouchables” caste, the lowest designation in the caste system, and face enormous discrimination in society. Initially, Empower Generation and UUSC were planning to select one entrepreneur and several sales agents, as part of our program. However, after meeting Danu Ale, age 27, and Gita Pariyar, age 37, we decided to recruit both of them as co-CEOs of one business. Danu and Gita have a long track record of working together as community outreach and development volunteers, having introduced improved cookstoves to their communities and provided health and sanitation trainings.

Neither of them had ever thought about starting their own business, but with Empower Generation and UUSC’s support they started their business Ashmita and Laxmi Saurya Urjah and Traders, named after their daughters Ashmita and Laxmi. With their new business, they are not only becoming financially independent but are also providing job opportunities to their ten sales agents.

 

Gita, born a Dalit, remembers how people used to cleanse everything that was touched by her and other Dalits when she was a child. Though people today are more aware and less prejudice about Dalits, there are still many who do not accept them. From a young age, Gita worked hard to change people’s perceptions of Dalits. Today, she works for a community development program, promoted by Empower Dalit Women of Nepal (EDWON). EDWON’s mission is to enable rural Dalit women, repressed by caste and gender, to claim their rights and live in dignity.

Nepalese woman in a sari.
Gita in her shop.

Gita’s business partner Danu is part of an indigenous caste called Magar. She does not face the same discrimination as Gita, but her caste does not have a high standard of living in Gorkha. Though Danu and Gita are from different castes, like all people, they share common experiences. They both were married at 17 years old and both have a 7th grade education.

Nepalese woman with two children at her side.
Danu with her children

In terms of running their business, Danu and Gita’s skills and strengths complement each other. Danu is skilled with her hands, but when it comes to speaking in front of large audiences she lacks confidence. Gita has strong leadership skills and is confident speaking with people. Both Danu and Gita share a focus on developing the skills of the people in their communities.

Neither of them had ever thought about starting their own business, but with Empower Generation and UUSC’s support they started their business Ashmita and Laxmi Saurya Urjah and Traders, named after their daughters Ashmita and Laxmi. With their new business, they are not only becoming financially independent but are also providing job opportunities to their ten sales agents, who were unable to complete their schooling and belong to either the Dalit or indigenous castes.

Since the 2015 earthquake, many people continue to live in Gorkha without electricity. Solar products distributed by Danu and Gita’s business are making life easier. Customers can extend their working days into the evenings, earning more income and improving their children’s study times and household safety. For example, farmers can work in their fields and check on their livestock in the evenings; children can study for longer hours; and women can see better when cooking at night, decreasing kitchen accidents. Danu and Gita’s business has helped entire communities come out of darkness. They want to light every village in Gorkha. But due to Gorkha’s rugged geographical terrain, it is difficult for one enterprise to cover all the villages in the district. There is no reliable public transport to visit remote areas, so it is essential that more solar enterprises are launched.

Rights Reading

Our weekly roundup of what we’re reading includes a few select articles from the front lines of human rights that we don’t want you to miss. The theme of this week’s Rights Reading is: Resistance! We’re showcasing different ways communities are resisting across the United States.

“Sanctuary restaurants” are popping up in the US to protect their immigrant workers from Trump, Quartz, Chase Purdy, January 26, 2017

“Starting this week, restaurants across the country—from small-town delis to fancier eateries—have signed on to become “sanctuary restaurants,” something they hope will send a clear message to their employees, communities, and Washington that hardline policies won’t be received well.”

In a previous Rights Reading, we highlighted the launch of the “Sanctuary Restaurant” movement that was started by our partner, ROC United. With Latinos and Hispanics making up a quarter of restaurant workers in the United States, restaurant owners have been quick to sign on to the new sanctuary restaurant movement, and the movement is growing rapidly. Restaurant workers are facing increasing harassment and discrimination and the decision to become a sanctuary restaurant has become a “no brainer” for many business owners.

Sanctuary restaurants declare themselves hate-free and have a zero tolerance for discrimination. These restaurants have also agreed to give trainings on general rights and what to do if immigration officials come on site. They are also considering non-cooperation with police and other federal authorities, much like other sanctuary movements.

To learn more about this movement and find a sanctuary restaurant near you, check out their map with all of the different locations, and if you’re a restaurant owner, sign up here.

It may only take 3.5% of the population to topple a dictator – with civil resistance, The Guardian, Erica Chenoweth, February 1, 2017

“…long-term change never comes with submission, resignation, or despair about the inevitability and intractability of the status quo.”

The United States has a rich history of civil resistance, and today, more than ever, Americans are positioned to resist in greater ways. History shows that it only takes 3.5% of a population to overthrow a dictatorship. Further, “when campaigns are able to prepare, train, and remain resilient, they often succeed regardless of whether the government uses violence against them.”

From labor markets, to supporting farm-workers, and most recently, resisting the Dakota Access Pipeline, civil resistance has brought down systems of inequality, educated masses, and empowered minority communities. In fact, history has shown that non-violence resistance is more effective, safer, and less costly than armed resistance.

While there have been some ineffective resistance movements, this article highlights the characteristics of successful civil resistance movements. Patience, understanding the political dynamics that affect the issue(s), having a committed and diverse core of supporters, and building and leveraging connections, are some of the key traits that have led to successful civil resistance.

In the last two weeks, the United States has seen numerous examples of groups rising up and resisting new policies set forth by the Trump administration. Boycotting votes for Trump nominees, the Women’s March, and resisting the refugee ban are all forms of resistance that can defy these inhumane and discriminatory policies. We can do this!

San Francisco Is the First City to File Suit Challenging Trump’s Sanctuary City Executive Order, Jezebel, Megan Reynolds, February 1, 2017

“San Francisco is safer when all people, including undocumented immigrants, feel safe reporting crimes. San Francisco is healthier when all residents, including undocumented immigrants, access public health programs. And San Francisco is economically and socially stronger when all children, including undocumented immigrants, attend school.”

San Francisco has become the first city to sue the Trump administration’s executive order on defunding sanctuary cities. Forcing local and state laws to carry out federal law, under any circumstances, is unconstitutional and is the basis for this case. While many cities and towns have also resisted, declaring themselves as sanctuary or recommitting their cities and towns to be sanctuary, San Francisco is the first city to file a lawsuit. UUSC applauds the city in taking this action and is excited to see others follow suit.

To read more about the executive order and its proposed effects on sanctuary cities, check out the first of our blog series, What Trump’s Executive Orders Really Means.